China's 're-education' / concentration camps in Xinjiang

China's 're-education' / concentration camps in Xinjiang

Bibliography of select news reports & academic works

Compiled by Magnus Fiskesjö []. Last revised Sept. 14, 2018

No endorsements intended. -- Feel free to distribute. Suggestions welcome. Any language.

Also posted here:


1, A few good starting points

2, News and reports in chronological order (mainly 2018, newest first)

3, Select academic works on Uighurs & others in Xinjiang

4, Film

5, More sources and bibliographies

1. A few good starting points

“Eradicating Ideological Viruses” - China’s Campaign of Repression Against Xinjiang’s Muslims. Human Rights Watch, September 9, 2018.



‘Thoroughly reforming them towards a healthy heart attitude’: China’s political re-education campaign in Xinjiang. Adrian Zenz. Central Asian Survey, Published online: 05 Sep 2018

China: UN discrimination experts 'alarmed' at reports on Xinjiang, urge prompt action.

China’s Mass Internment Camps Have No Clear End in Sight: Around 1 million Uighurs have disappeared without trial. Worse may come. By Rian Thum. Foreign Policy, Aug. 22, 2018.

China’s re-education camps for a million Muslims: What everyone needs to know.

How The World Learned China Is Holding Over A Million Muslims In Internment Camps. Akbar Shahid Ahmed, Huffington Post, 08/15/2018 02:01 pm ET.

List of Re-education Camps in Xinjiang 新疆再教育集中营列表. By Shawn Zhang. May 20, 2018.

= Updated later. See too :

‘Everyone was silent, endlessly mute’: Former Chinese re-education instructor speaks out. +



Important: Chinese intellectuals speak out against oppression of the Uighurs, Kazachs:


2. News and reports in chronological order (mainly 2018)

September 2018:

Behind the Walls: Three Uyghurs Detail their Experience in China’s Secret ‘Re-education’ Camps. NED, September 20, 2018, 09:00 am - 10:30 am

RFA Uyghur service recently interviewed three former detainees from these camps who described the conditions and what life is like behind the walls for the men, women, and even children arbitrarily detained ... RFA also filmed inside Xinjiang, capturing images of daily life in a surveillance state for the Uyghur people ...the testimonies of these three detainees make clear not only the existence of such camps but also the way they are operated and how the detainees are treated as prisoners... [in] what’s being described as a new apartheid state.

UN EVENT ANNOUNCEMENT: President of the @UyghurCongress @Dolkun_Isa will speak at an upcoming @UNHumanRights Side Event organised by @Rightsbehindyou & @PartitoRadicale in Geneva along w/ @HRW who present their new report on the internment camp system in East Turkistan. Sept. 18, 2018, 15.30-16.30, Room XXIII, Palais des nations, Geneva Switzerland.

(Also with Adrian Zenz, and John Fisher, HRW)

Interview: ‘It Hurts my Heart to See my Children Cry For Their Mother’. RFA, 2018-09-14

EU envoy says 'engagement' with China is the way to solve Xinjiang issue. Reuters, September 14, 2018 / 4:35 AM / Updated.

See my (MF) comments to this:

Indian Muslims protest China's detention of Uighur Muslims - AP News. 14 sept 2018.

New lawyer and pending inhibition: Latest on the Uyghur family risking deportation from Sweden. Jojje Olsson,, 14 september, 2018.

Dozens more Uighur professors at Xinjiang University have been detained.

Yaxue Cao @YaxueCao Retweeted Uyghur from E.T. 2:41 PM - 14 Sep 2018

Splid i Grønland, vidnesbyrd fra Xinjiang og Kinas grønne spring. Lene Winther, Kina Snak, Podcast 14. september 2018|Varighed: 54:26.

("Omkring en million muslimer sidder i genopdragelseslejre i Xinjiang, hvor de skal synge kommunistpartiets sange og undsige deres religion islam. Maya Wang, senior researcher fra Human Rights Watch, fortæller om nye vidnesbyrd i deres seneste rapport." ) --Program is in Danish, but interview with Maya Wang is in English. On Xinjiang, listen from 00:19--00:34.

'Awakening' of a Han Chinese Cadre in Southern Xinjiang: she came to a shock realization that her mind was in fact infiltrated with religious extreme thoughts, believing that eating halal food was Uyghurs’ ethnic food custom which deserved respect. NUR, @uyghur_nur, Sep 13 2018


(MF note: This is not a joke. It signals a return to the oppressive "Cultural Revolution" Chinese extremism, when extremist Chinese communists also harrassed Muslims using pigs, pork, etc.)

Testimonial from my uncle, Azat Mahmut, who lists out 26 of his relatives who have been sent to Chinese concentration camps or prison. Two of those listed have already come out dead. (THREAD). Summarized reasons for being locked up: Going abroad or doing religious activity. Aydin Anwar @aydinanwar_, 8:49 PM - 13 Sep 2018.

U.S. “looking at situation” on China's Muslim crackdown: Official. Lesley Wroughton, Reuters, September 13, 2018.

新疆再教育营遭谴责 中方称做职业训练 [China refutes condemnation of Xinjiang re-education camps, says they are for “vocational training”]. Deutsche Welle, September 14, 2018新疆再教育营遭谴责-中方称做职业训练/a-45482863?maca=chi-rss-chi-ca-1044-rdf&zhongwen=simp

Chinese Official: China Educating, Not Mistreating Muslims. VOA / Reuters. September 13, 2018, 3:12 PM.

Chinese official says China is educating, not mistreating, Muslims

Tom Miles, Stephanie Nebehay, Reuters. September 13, 2018 / 6:55 AM

China holds one million Uighur Muslims in concentration camps: The world's next major human disaster is in the making in China. This time, we should act before it's too late. Khaled A Beydoun. AlJazeera, 13 sept. 2018.

中国官员:新疆再教育营是“职业培训” RFA, 2018-09-13.

China, academics tout Beijing's human rights record at UN. By Associated Press. Published: 13:19 EDT, 13 September 2018 | Updated: 13:45 EDT, 13 September 2018.

48 Ways to Get Sent to a Chinese Concentration Camp: Something terrible is happening in Xinjiang. By Tanner Greer. Foreign Policy. September 13, 2018, 10:40 AM

Uyghurs, Kazakhs and the Chinese “De-extremification” Campaign: Interview with Darren Byler. Art of Life in Chinese Central Asia. Published on September 13, 2018

My father Jumabay 70 yrs old & was born in Sawen county of Chöchek.He is communist party memeber. He worked for Chinese gov around 40 yrs. In March 2017 He went to Sawen county to visit relatives but he has been arrested & locked up in concentration camps by #Chinese @SilamKurman

Abdugheni Sabit @AbdugheniSabit, 9:48 AM - 13 Sep 2018.

This is not North Korea But #Chinese occupied East #Turkistan.They are #Uyghurs who forced to sing " Communistic party is good,socialism is good" 这不是朝鲜。这是維吾尔人被逼唱"共产党好"

Abdugheni Sabit @AbdugheniSabit. 8:27 AM - 13 Sep 2018

'My soul, where are you?': families of Muslims missing in China meet wall of silence. An estimated one million Muslims are being held in re-education camps in Xinjiang. Across the border in Kazakhstan, there’s a desperate wait for news of Uighurs, Kazakhs and other minorities. by Lily Kuo in Shelek, Kazakhstan. The Guardian, Thu 13 Sep 2018 09.51 EDT Last modified on Thu 13 Sep 2018 11.51 EDT.

The Guardian view on Xinjiang: China’s secret camps are at last in the spotlight: As increasing evidence emerges of the arbitrary detention of Muslim minorities on a shocking scale in the north-western region, the new UN rights chief and others are speaking out. Editorial. The Guardian, Thu 13 Sep 2018 13.16 EDT.

I’m a Uyghur Muslim who fled China’s brutal crackdown – it’s time the world showed us some support. -- Chinese officials have been targeting the ethnic group for decades. As well as being imprisoned in internment camps, human rights violations like tracking Uyghurs with QR codes are increasing. Gulnaz Uighur. 13 sept 2018.

Uyghur Children Separated From Parents, Held in 'Little Angels Schools' in Xinjiang. RFA, 2018-09-13.

China Continues to Defend Its Indefensible Policies Toward the Uighurs. The Editors Thursday, Sept. 13, 2018.

[Australia:] Labor calls for increased pressure on China over alleged mass detention of Uighur Muslims. By Jack Kilbride, wires. Posted 13 sept. 2018.

Speaking out: Uygurs in the United States break silence on China’s crackdown. Emboldened by international scrutiny, the American Uygur diaspora is increasingly willing to publicly condemn China’s re-education programmes, despite the risk to loved ones in Xinjiang. SCMP, 12 September, 2018, 11:58pm; UPDATED: 13 September, 2018, 3:03am.

Lawmakers, citing Muslim camps, ask Commerce Dept. to limit technology sales to China

The New York Times, September 12, 2018

China urges U.S. to “abandon prejudice” over Xinjiang. Reuters, September 12, 2018

U.S. lawmakers back sanctions over China's Muslim crackdown. Reporting by Patricia Zengerle and Matt Spetalnick. Reuters, September 12, 2018 / 1:09 PM / Updated.

Lawmakers, Citing Muslim Camps, Ask Commerce Dept. to Limit Technology Sales to China. By Edward Wong. NYT, Sept. 12, 2018

#Kazakh mothers in #Almaty, demand #Chinese gov to release their husbands, sons and also shutdown the concentration camps. Chinese official threatens to mothers & say " You gathered here illegally & who organize this will be held accountable by the law". Abdugheni Sabit @AbdugheniSabit, 12 sept. 2018

End France’s Silence over Massive Rights Violations in China. Foreign Minister Le Drian Should Denounce Xinjiang Repression during Beijing. Bénédicte Jeannerod, France Director, HRW.

September 12, 2018 12:02PM EDT.

Meet Halmurat. His parents are in a concentration camp. #WhoAreUyghur, 11:14 AM - 12 Sep 2018.

De staat heeft je DNA. 12 sept. 2018.

(In Flemish)

Anwar ‘Appalled’ by Suu Kyi, Criticizes China's Muslim Camps. By Daniel Ten Kate, and Sophie Kamaruddin. September 12, 2018, 4:51 AM EDT.


The Han-opticon. China’s dystopian surveillance networks – Louisa Lim. September 11, 2018.

Underperforming cadres in Xinjiang's Aksu province sent to be "melted down" in brain washing center, where they undergo military style drills and political reeducation. After 15 days, they are tested on what they've learned. Failure = rinse and repeat. Ben Dooley @BenjaminDooley, 11 sept 2018.



阿克苏地区行政公署 发布日期:2018-05-09 文章来源:阿克苏日报

Another Camp for Muslims Discovered in Xinjiang. 09/11/2018 By admin

+ More about this camp, #27 here:


China’s Muslim ban. By Maya Wang, @wang_maya. The Interpreter, 12 September 2018, 16:00 AEDT.

Chairs Urge Commerce Secretary to Expand U.S. “Entity List” to Include Chinese Government and State Security Entities in Xinjiang: Argue that U.S. Companies Should Not be Complicit in Gross Human Rights Violations. CECC, September 12, 2018

Omer Kanat of World Uyghur Congress on HRW Report on Muslims in China

See more at 12 sept. 2018

Speech by HR/VP Mogherini at the plenary session of the European Parliament on the state of the EU-China relations. Strasbourg, 11/09/2018 - 12:25, UNIQUE ID: 180912_6

China installing QR codes on Uyghur Muslim homes as part of mass security crackdown

Officials collect biometric data including DNA and voice samples, former residents say.

Tom Embury-Dennis, The Independent. 11 sept. 2018.

Call for Canberra to pressure China over Muslim detention camps. Financial Review, Sep 11 2018 at 6:52 PM; Updated Sep 11 2018 at 7:40 PM.

Australia: Labor's @SenatorWong has expressed concern at the Chinese government's mass detention campaign in Xinjiang and reports of Uighurs in Australia being intimidated or unable to contact family.

Fergus Hunter @fergushunter 9:30 PM - 11 Sep 2018.

Things That Will Get You Thrown in a Chinese Political Education Camp

The scholar's stage. 11 September, 2018

Interview: 'The U.S. is Taking The Issue of The Concentration Camps Quite Seriously', RFA, 2018-09-11.

( Dolkun Isa, the president of the Munich-based World Uyghur Congress (WUC) and Omer Kanat, chairman of the WUC Executive Committee )

Ardern flags human rights, China visit at meeting. Sam Sachdeva. Newsroom, Updated Sept 11, 2018.

Maralbexi (Bachu) County in Xinjiang reported on its fiscal strains last year, including 400 million yuan a year paying security personnel and 223 million yuan a year to operate indoctrination camps and police outposts at "high efficiency". Chris Buckley 储百亮 @ChuBailiang. 2:08 AM - 10 Sept. 2018.


Video: China's Ministry of Foreign Affairs denies human rights abuse allegations in Xinjiang.

Yahoo News, September 10, 2018

Uyghur Muslim policy in China is mass persecution. Rais Hussin. 11 Sep 2018, 9:33 am (Updated 11 Sep 2018, 9:52 am).

(RAIS HUSSIN is a supreme council member of Parti Pribumi Bersatu Malaysia [Bersatu]).

”Xinjiang är i praktiken en polisstat”. Omni, 10 sept 2018. (In Swedish)

联合国人权专员关注新疆维吾尔人处境. RFA, 2018-09-10

Gulistan Aziz's testimony: " My brother Askar Bakri 22 years old. Eighteen-month ago my brother has arrested by Chinese police while he was sitting with his friends, We don't know if he is alive. Please help us find out what happened to my brother." Abdugheni Sabit‏ @AbdugheniSabit. 1:08 PM - 10 Sep 2018.

“New UN rights chief decries abuses of minorities, migrants” – Times Live [South Africa], 10 Sep 2018:

#Muslims in Bangladesh protesting against China’s ethnic cleansing of the #Uyghurs. They are one of the first #Muslim communities to mobilize and stand up for our East Turkistani people. Abdugheni Sabit, @AbdugheniSabit. 11:07 PM - 10 Sep 2018.

U.N. rights chief Bachelet takes on China, other powers in first speech. By Stephanie Nebehay. Reuters, September 10, 2018 / 3:31 AM / Updated.



A few more reports on Bachelet's speech around African media (links TBD):

HRW: China government conducting campaign of human rights violations against Muslims. Al-Ahram Gate ["the most widely circulating Egyptian daily newspaper"], 11 September 2018.


ONG denuncia campanha repressiva de Pequim contra minoria muçulmana. Agência Angola Press, 10 September 2018.


ONU: Bachelet épingle la Birmanie, la Chine et les pays occidentaux.

La Nouvelle Tribune NOUTRI [Morocco], 10 September 2018.

联合国人权高专对中国关押大批维吾尔人的指称“深感不安” (UN High Commissioner for Human Rights is "deeply disturbed" by allegations of a large number of Uighurs detained in China). Voice of America, September 10, 2018.

Escape from Xinjiang: Muslim Uighurs speak of China persecution: Testimonies by Muslim Uighurs who escaped Xinjiang confirm reports of 'systematic campaign of human rights violations'. By Ted Regencia. Aljazeera, 10 Sept. 2018.

New Reports from HRW & NYT Add Detail to Xinjiang Camp Allegations, China Digital Times, September 10, 2018, 5:55 PM.

China: Muslims Repressed, Monitored, Forced into Camps. HumanRightsWatch, Sep. 10, 2018.

China committing unprecedented human rights abuses in Xinjiang - HRW report. Ahval, Sep 10 2018.

China thinks Islam is a disease, and Muslim leaders don’t care. Should the crackdown on the country’s Uighur population go unchallenged, such policies could easily be replicated by other countries looking to repress minorities. Azad Essa, Middle East Eye, Monday 10 September 2018 10:52 UTC.

(= the column that was censored in South Africa: )

One can be labeled ‘重点人员' (important persons to be controlled) and be locked up at one of those re-education centres for having previous criminal history, having no land and no fixed occupation.

NUR @uyghur_nur, 5:34 AM - 10 Sep 2018.

兵团十四师法治教育转化中心 Bingtuan (Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps) Fourteenth Division Re-education camp, Hotan Prefecture Guma County, May 2017. 4:36 AM - 10 Sep 2018.

Media Statement: Australian National Imams Council (ANIC) Condemns the Ongoing Persecution and Violation of Human Rights Against the #Uyghur Muslims by the Chinese Authorities.

@UyghurBulletin, 10 Sep 2018

维族人受迫害 人权组织要求制裁中国 (In just-released report, Human Rights Watch states that China should be condemned and sanctioned by international community for persecution of Uyghurs). Deutsche Welle, September 10, 2018.

家有地圖指南針、戒煙戒酒被列「宗教極端活動」 人權觀察:新疆穆斯林受「空前嚴格限制」

眾新聞 CitizenNews. 撰文: 記者吳婉英 | 發佈日期: 10.09.18 | 最後更新: | 2018-09-10 08:45:57

Professors Call on Cornell to Speak Up on Chinese Detainment of More Than One Million Muslim Minorities. By Yuichiro Kakutani. Cornell Daily Sun, Tuesday, September 10, 2018.

The mass "re-education" camps in China's Xinjiang: An open roundtable discussion. Cornell University, Monday, September 10, 2018 at 12:00pm to 1:00pm.

(Incl. a Powerpoint presentation by Magnus Fiskesjö, "The mass 're-education' camps in China's Xinjiang: Overview and update." Available from the author,

China says all ethnic groups in Xinjiang live in harmony. CGTN, 2018-09-10 19:57 GMT+8

(Selectively "answering" HRW, but not Michelle Bachelet; it's an old evasive pattern)

Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Geng Shuang's Regular Press Conference on September 10. 2018/09/10.

(Pitiful: "Xinjiang is enjoying overall social stability, sound economic development and harmonious co- existence of different ethnic groups.")

“Eradicating Ideological Viruses” - China’s Campaign of Repression Against Xinjiang’s Muslims. HRW, September 9, 2018.

+ commentary:

+ commentary in Swedish:



中国:对穆斯林地区的大规模镇压. 新疆大量居民遭任意拘押、宗教压迫和监控

HRW, 2018年 09月 09日 8:01下午 EDT.

China: Massive Crackdown in Muslim Region: Mass Arbitrary Detention, Religious Repression, Surveillance in Xinjiang. HRW, September 9, 2018 8:01PM EDT.


Interview: China’s Crackdown on Turkic Muslims. Nazish Dholakia, Media Desk Officer; Maya Wang, China Senior Researcher. HRW, September 9, 2018 8:01PM EDT.


Muslim minority in China's Xinjiang face 'political indoctrination': Human Rights Watch



Rights group accuses China of 'systematic campaign of human rights violations' against Muslims. By James Griffiths, CNN. Updated 5:20 AM ET, Mon September 10, 2018


Chinese authorities ‘punish and control’ ethnic minorities in Xinjiang, Human Rights Watch says in new report. By Jennifer Creery. HKFP, 10 September 2018 19:13.

1 million Muslims currently detained in China: Human Rights Watch: It is estimated that in the area, one million are currently detained in re-education camps where they are forced to learn Mandarin and sing the praises of the Chinese Communist Party. By safoora On September 10, 2018, 6:20PM IST [India].

U.S. Weighs Sanctions Against Chinese Officials Over Muslim Detention Camps. By Edward Wong, NYT, Sept. 10, 2018.

+ in Chinese:

China reportedly detained a man on terrorist charges because he set his watch 2 hours behind Beijing time. Alexandra Ma, Business Insider, Sep 9, 2018, 8:01 PM ET

Rights group calls for China sanctions over mass detentions. Channel News Asia, 10 Sep 2018 10:16AM.

Forced Departure of American Journalist Megha Rajagopalan – Is it Really Not About Xinjiang? China Law and Policy. By Elizabeth M. Lynch, September 9, 2018.

NEW: re-education/detention compound featured in latest NYT piece reveals MASSIVE EXPANSION in 2018. 2017 saw construction of 1st detention center and 1st re-education camp. Three new compounds, each larger than existing ones, were added in 2018.

Adrian Zenz @adrianzenz Retweeted Austin Ramzy. 12:56 PM - 9 Sep 2018

New: Adelaide student, who estimates about 18 of her family members are detained in China, says her Australian grandpa was detained earlier this year in Guangzhou for a night while trying to visit his locked up children. Primrose Riordan, @primroseriordan. 6:10 PM - 9 Sep 2018.

China Crushing Uighur Muslims. By Rod Dreher. September 9, 2018, 10:26 AM.

"I am Gulzire Tashmemet, here I announce my testimony about my younger sister Gulgine Tashmemet, who has been illegally detained in one of the concentration camps in China since Jan. 2018. ... a 31 years old girl, had studied at the U of Technology, Malaysia, from 2010-2017."

=Concerned Scholars of Xinjiang, @XJscholars Retweeted Halmurat Harri Uyghur. 9 Sep 2018.

+ full translation at Facebook (requires account):[0]=68.ARCtnzQky79CxBfgTPEErNpzOpK1gQrhWzV3la6tQPBhFaYAHDIMUzn8eq25DlFmmx0Q8wQU20Fne8oEnHsVwxgC4OZrNNcAaeZ_hMaUWZeYDZFDkrcMM9PusF52--EwNyo6kKq3JEI8a-eAS0P5vLQ9dZPUVuK9CSE9L7fc7iGm6xMViVGF944&__tn__=C-R

China Is Detaining Muslims in Vast Numbers. The Goal: ‘Transformation.’ By Chris Buckley, NYT. Sept. 8, 2018.

Satellite Imagery of Xinjiang “Re-education Camp” №41 新疆再教育集中营卫星图41

Re-education camp in Maralbishi. 巴楚县法制教育转化学校 39.818870, 78.518519

Shawn Zhang. Medium, Sep 7, 2918

(The latest update of satellite imagery, this time spotting rows of inmates)


Muslim China and “de-extremification” campaign: Interview with Darren Byler, Living Otherwise. Voices on Central Asia, September 7, 2018.

Interview: ‘Even if I Wanted to Return to my Homeland, it is Impossible Now’

Radio Free Asia, 2018-09-07.

[Turghunjan Tursun, a Uyghur from Yarkand, says that more than a dozen of his family members, incl his wife and young sons, are in political reeducation camps because he has been living in Turkey since 2014]

Chinese Authorities Continue to Destroy Mosques in Xinjiang. RFA, 2018-09-07.

Florida Sen. Rubio Takes Up the Cause of Uighur Minority in China. Morning Edition, NPR, September 7, 20185:02 AM ET.

Student at Canadian University Seeks to Expose Chinese Re-Education Centers. n.d., [Sept. ?] 2018.

路到尽头:一带一路, 逐步在经济上正将维吾尔人边缘化

Thu, 09/06/2018 - 15:30.

= (English):

Members of the European Parliament @ramontremosa @FMCastaldo @petras_petras have tabled a written question to High Rep/ Vice President @FedericaMog asking what the EU is doing to address the mass arbitrary detention of over 1 million #Uyghurs in political indoctrination camps. Umberto GAMBINI @Ugambini. 6 Sep 2018.

Uyghur Poetry in Translation: Perhat Tursun’s “Elegy”. Joshua L. Freeman, Ph.D. Candidate in Inner Asian and Altaic Studies at Harvard University, introduces and presents a translation of Uyghur poet Perhat Tursun’s “Elegy.” Fairbank Center Blog, Sep 6, 2018.

留学生发公开信吁释放维吾尔学者伊力哈木 [Overseas students issue open letter calling for release of Uyghur scholar Ilham Tohti]. Radio Free Asia, September 6, 2018

记者来鸿:新疆“再教育营”受害者恐怖经历 [Xinjiang "re-education camps" victim tells of horrific experiences]. BBC, September 6, 2018.

How China Is on the Verge of Totalitarianism 2.0. By Michael Clarke. New America, Sept. 6, 2018.

(on Xinjiang as a 21st Century Police State)

NEW (Sept 2018) "Thoroughly Reforming Them Towards a Healthy Heart Attitude" - China's Political Re-Education Campaign in Xinjiang. Adrian Zenz, European School of Culture and Theology, Korntal Updated September 6, 2018.

+ (paywall)

Statement concerning the detention of Rahile Dawut, Professor of Uyghur folklore, detained in Xinjiang. Central Eurasian Studies Society. Posted on September 6, 2018.

Another 8 U.S. Congressmen have written an official bipartisan letter to Secretary of State Mike Pompeo expressing their concern at the current situation affecting #Uyghurs, the denial of basic rights & esp the detention of the families of RFA journalists. September 6, 2018.


China Has Detained Up to 1 Million Uighur Muslims. By Bloomberg 1:02 PM EDT [6 sept. 2018].

Authorities Detain Uyghur Editor-in-Chief, Directors of Xinjiang Daily Newspaper. RFA,2018-09-05.

Hold China accountable: Conditions in Xinjiang have certainly got human rights activists worried. By AZAD ESSA. Cape Argus 5 Sep 2018 + The Star Early Edition 5 Sep 2018+4 more.


See copy of Twitter post from Azad Essa (= @azadessa) on the cancellation of his longstanding column, apparently due to Chinese censorship in South Africa: (thread)

China Has Detained Up to a Million Muslims. Here’s What You Need to Know

By Karen Leigh. Bloomberg, September 5, 2018, 12:01 PM EDT

Sept 5, 2018: China's “War on Terrorism” and the Xinjiang Emergency. Hudson Institute.

= Youtube video:

China’s Repression of Muslim Uighurs is Apparently Growing More Intense. NPR, All Things Considered. September 4, 2018.


UHRP, Published Tue, 09/04/2018 - 10:50.

Beijing’s dispute against UN panel on Xinjiang may ring hollow. By Gary Sands. Asia Times, September 4, 2018 12:45 PM (UTC+8)

Securitization and mass detentions in Xinjiang: How Uyghurs became quarantined from the outside world. By Rachel Harris. Quartz, September 4, 2018.

Author Archives: China Change: An Open Letter on Ilham Tohti’s Life. China Change, September 4, 2018 4:34 pm.

China's Jaw-Dropping Family Separation Policy. Children and parents are being ripped apart on a massive scale. It may rob an entire generation of their Muslim identities. Sigal Samuel. The Atlantic, Sept. 4, 2018, 5:00 AM ET.

Hong Kong rally denounces Beijing's alleged mass detention of Uyghurs. efe-epa, Hong Kong, 2 Sep 2018


香港16个团体抗议中国政府在新疆严酷打压维族. VOA Chinese, 2018年9月2日 23:10.

‘An information black hole’: Exiled Muslim Uighurs fear for loved ones back home as China tightens its grip on Xinjiang. Jennifer Creery. HKFP, 2 September 2018 11:00.

Arabs turn blind eye to persecution of Chinese Muslims because of Beijing’s power

Jyoti Malhotra and Simrin Sirur. The Print [India], 2 September, 2018.

(Very strange ending: To "live on their own" is exactly what the Uighur are not allowed. )

In China’s autonomous Xinjiang region, Muslims are imprisoned in shocking internment camps: This region has become a total surveillance state, where Muslims face internment camps and torture. But Australia’s hands are tied., September 2, 20187:59AM.

‘No factual basis’: China disputes UN report on Uighur discrimination. HKFP, 1 Sept. 2018 10:00 AFP.

What it's like inside the internment camps China uses to oppress its Muslim minority, according to people who've been there. Alexandra Ma. Business Insider, 1 September 2018.

Xinjiang ‘extremists’ encouraged by West, claims Chinese paper as US lawmakers demand sanctions. Beijing Financial News, September 1, 2018.

+ repeated in Romanian:

& in Hong Kong:

China: The Unique Example of Peace and Success. Mohammad Zahir Akbari, Outlook Afghanistan, September 01, 2018.

August 2018:

One in Six Uyghurs Held in Political ‘Re-Education Camps’ in Xinjiang’s Onsu County. RFA,


China considers Uighur religious belief ''a mental disease''. FRANCE 24 English. Published on Aug 31, 2018.

Xinjiang people know their situation best. Global Times Published: 2018/8/31 23:33:32

+ Commentary:

China bites back at U.S. suggestion of sanctions over concentration camps

The response follows a new bipartisan letter highlighting China's move to detain upwards of one million Muslims. Casey Michel. ThinkProgress, Aug 31, 2018, 12:27 pm.

China’s Muslim Crackdown Extends to Those Living Abroad: Chinese authorities, fearing radical influence, threaten to throw family members still in the country’s far west Xinjiang region into detention. By Eva Dou. WSJ, Aug. 31, 2018 8:35 a.m. ET.

Reeducation in China: Beijing's crimes should elicit world condemnation. The Editors. The Weekly Standard. 31 aug. 2018.

China | UN discrimination experts 'alarmed' at reports on Xinjiang, urge prompt action. 31.08.2018.

UN 'alarmed' by reports of China's mass detention of Uighurs. BBC, 31.08.2018.

Xinjiang: Umoralsk å tie om Kinas overgrep mot muslimsk minoritet: Norske politikere på besøk i Beijing har ikke lagt noen plan for å ta opp overgrepene i Xinjiang. Internasjonale Kina-eksperter mener verden må protestere. Dagbladet, KOMMENTAR 31. AUGUST 2018 KL. 6.00. Inger Bentzrud. [In Norwegian]

China bites back at U.S. suggestion of sanctions over concentration camps

The response follows a new bipartisan letter highlighting China's move to detain upwards of one million Muslims. Casey Michel. ThinkProgress, Aug 31, 2018, 12:27 pm.

Homo Xinensis: Drop Your Pants! The Party Wants to Patriotise You All Over Again (Part III). Geremie Barmé, China Heritage, 31 August 2018.

[on political brainwashing in China, as context for Xinjiang]

UN alarmed by China's Uighur camps. Times of India / IANS, updated Aug. 31, 2018.


The UN is calling on China to 'immediately release' one million Muslim Uighurs who may be held in detention centers. Rosie Perper. Business Insider Nordic, 31 august 2018.

As China cracks down on Uighurs, Muslim nations stay silent. BLOOMBERG, AFP-JIJI / Japan Times, AUG 31, 2018.

La Chine détiendrait un million de Ouïgours dans « des camps d’internement ». L’ONU s’inquiète du sort de ces musulmans chinois détenus en secret pour de longues durées, sans poursuites ou jugements. Ce que le régime dément. LE MONDE | 31.08.2018 à 12h38 • Mis à jour le 31.08.2018 à 13h32

China fumes as US lawmakers call for sanctions over Xinjiang abuses: UN asks Beijing to free Uighurs from camps. Saudi Gazette, 30 august 2018.

Are Muslim Uyghurs being brainwashed by the Chinese state? Eye-witnesses and human rights experts claim up to 1 million people are being held in 're-education camps' in China. - BBC Newsnight. Published on Aug 30, 2018.

Up To 1Mln Ethnic Uyghurs Held In 'Re-Education Camps' In China's Xinjiang Province - UN. Umer Jamshaid, UrduPoint, Thu 30th August 2018 | 09:16 PM.

China: Systematic repression of ethnic minorities laid bare in UN findings. 30 August 2018, 15:41 UTC

China's treatment of the Uyghurs "doesn't have anything to do with a fight against terrorism. ... It's a war against a people," Omer Kanat of @uyghurproject tells @nickschifrin. 0:26. Video. PBS NewsHour. 30 Aug 2018.

Radio Islam. Ep. 598 (FULL) Uyghur Camps and Results of Rohingya Genocide [8/30/18]

What’s behind China’s mass crackdown on Uighur Muslims? PBS Newshour. Aug 30, 2018 6:35 PM EDT

Is China detaining Uighur Muslims in secret camps? | Inside story. China’s been accused of detaining more than a million Uighur Muslims in what UN human rights experts says resembles “a massive internment camp, shrouded in secrecy, a sort of no-rights zone.” Al Jazeera English. Published on Aug 30, 2018.

China must release Uighur Muslims from alleged re-education camps 'immediately', UN says

Human rights experts received reports around a million Uighurs are held in what resembles a 'massive internment camp that is shrouded in secrecy'. Samuel Osborne. The Independent, 30 august 2018.

UN calls on China to free Uyghurs from ‘re-education camps’. Globe and Mail, Stephanie Nebehay, GENEVA / Reuters. Published August 30, 2018. Updated.

China: Systematic repression of ethnic minorities laid bare in UN findings., 30 August 2018, 15:41 UTC.

U.N. Calls for Release of Xinjiang Detainees. Posted By: Sophie Beach. China Digital Times, August 30, 2018, 3:18 PM.

UN panel 'alarmed' by reports over Xinjiang. China's treatment of Muslim Uighurs has prompted a UN panel to express alarm. A group of US senators wants Chinese officials sanctioned. Beijing denies turning its Xinjiang region into a "high-tech police state." DW, 30 aug. 2018.

US politicians urge gov’t to impose sanctions on Chinese officials complicit in Xinjiang rights abuses. Jennifer Creery. HKFP, 30 August 2018 15:37

China rejects sanctions call over Muslim camps. RTHK, 2018-08-30 HKT 20:39

US lawmakers urge sanctions over Xinjiang camps. RTHK, 2018-08-30 HKT 10:56

U.N. Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination Concluding observations on the combined fourteenth to seventeenth periodic reports of China (including Hong Kong, China and Macao, China). Distr. 2018-08-30.

U.N. calls on China to free Uighurs from 're-education camps'. Stephanie Nebehay. reuters, August 30, 2018 / 7:50 AM / Updated.

UN Committee on Elimination of Racial Discrimination recommendations on Xinjiang: stop detaining people who have not been lawfully charged. Nathan VanderKlippe‏ @nvanderklippe. 2018-08-30.

Will The U.S. Sanction China Over Its Muslim ‘Re-Education’ Camps? LUCAS NIEWENHUIS. SupChina, AUGUST 30, 2018.

Lawmakers Push to Sanction Chinese Officials Over Xinjiang Camps: Sen. Rubio and 16 other members of Congress call for moves in a letter to Pompeo and Mnuchin. WSJ, Aug. 30, 2018.

Muslim Governments Silent as China Cracks Down on Uighurs: Most nations maintain close economic, trade ties with Beijing. UN expert says up to 1 million Muslims in ‘re-education’ camps. Bloomberg News, August 30, 2018, 5:00 PM EDT Updated on August 31, 2018, 2:08 AM EDT.

"We asked the governments of Turkey, Indonesia, Pakistan, India, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia and Egypt to comment. None of them responded." ( )

“China lashes out at US lawmakers for sanctions call over Muslim camps” – Times Live [South Africa], 30 Aug 2018:

China Rejects U.S. Lawmakers' Push for Russian-Style Sanctions. Bloomberg News. August 29, 2018, 11:58 PM EDT Updated on August 30, 2018, 5:29 AM EDT.

Chairs Lead Bipartisan Letter Urging Administration to Sanction Chinese Officials Complicit in Xinjiang Abuses. Xinjiang. August 29, 2018.

Group of U.S. lawmakers urges China sanctions over Xinjiang abuses. Reuters, AUGUST 29, 2018 / 5:00 PM / UPDATED.


Documenting weekly patriotic flag-raising ceremonies that are forced upon local residents.

AYNUR @AYNUR22630941, 29 Aug 2018. Thread

Who Are The Uighurs? China Is Detaining This Muslim Minority By The Million. Ethnic Uighurs are being rounded up and held in massive prisonlike camps. Here’s what you need to know. By Ryan Grenoble. HuffPost 08/29/2018 02:32 pm ET.

(w. clip from BBC interview 22 aug. 2018 )

Lawmakers urge Trump administration to sanction China over Muslim crackdown. By Conor Finnegan. ABC News, Aug 29, 2018, 12:57 AM ET.

For a View of Dystopia, Look No Further than China’s Xinjiang: The world needs to pay attention to what is unfolding in Xinjiang. Not only to stand in solidarity with minorities unable to defend themselves, but also because the dystopian scenario in China’s Far West could very well soon become a reality for us all. Alex Goik,, Aug 29, 2018.

Ouïghours: Les camps secrets du régime chinois. Par Laurence Defranoux — 29 août 2018 à 19:26.

China’s Re-education Camps: Evidence grows that Beijing has imprisoned thousands of Muslims. WSJ, 28 aug. 2018.

Uighur refugees granted citizenship. Jonathan Bell. The Royal Gazette, Aug 28, 2018 at 8:00 am (Updated Aug 28, 2018 at 8:01 am).

The FT View: China’s partners should not turn a blind eye to fate of Uighurs. If governments will not act, there is more the corporate sector could do. FT, 28 aug. 2018.

Shocking reports from Xinjiang before visit. Norway today, 28. August 2018.

Rian Thum, @RianThum 9:40 AM - 28 Aug 2018

= The @internetarchive's Wayback Machine has been a crucial tool for documenting China's mass internment camps for Uyghurs. Scholars like @adrianzenz & @GroseTimothy have raced against authorities who are scrubbing evidence of the camps, like this

= 用情感敲开心灵大门 用说理舒缓群众情绪 石亭资讯 百家号17-04-1423:59]

Another journalist expelled – as China's abuses grow, who will see them? Megha Rajagopalan has joined the list of ousted reporters who fail to ‘reflect the will of the party’. Maya Wang @wang_maya. The Guardian, Tue 28 Aug 2018 10.01 EDT.

China Is Treating Islam Like a Mental Illness. The country is putting Muslims in internment camps—and causing real psychological damage in the process. Sigal Samuel. The Atlantic, 28 aug 2018. 5:00 AM ET.

China Declared Islam a Contagious Disease – and Quarantined 1 Million Muslims. By Eric Levitz. Daily Intelligencer, AUG. 28, 2018.

Uighur refugees granted citizenship. Jonathan Bell. Royal Gazette, Aug 28, 2018 at 8:00 am (Updated Aug 28, 2018 at 8:01 am).

Så skolas Kinas muslimer om: I västra Kina har ett lägersystem för muslimer upprättats. För att kontrollera områdets uigurer har regimen samtidigt trappat upp sitt flyktingspionage i Sverige. Amnesty Press har talat med kinesiska flyktingar i Sverige som har drabbats., REPORTAGE | 2018-08-27. AV: JOJJE OLSSON. ÄVEN PUBLICERAD I AMNESTYPRESS #3/2018 [in Swedish]

+ (in Swedish, incl on Uighur refugees in Sweden, and Chinese espionage against them)

China’s repression of Uyghurs targets symptoms, not cause of unrest. Islam isn't the problem in Xinjiang, China's attempt to wash away the Uyghur majority is, writes Gwynne Dyer. The Hill Times, Aug. 27, 2018.

A Culture Destroyed: China Expunges Uyghur Identity. China Interns A Million or More Muslims in ‘Re-education’ Camps. Kate Fitz Gibbon - August 27, 2018.

Why the Muslim world isn't saying anything about China’s repression and 'cultural cleansing' of its downtrodden Muslim minority. Alexandra Ma. Business insider, 27 aug. 2018.

China, the Uighurs and Hong Kong. [Embassy of China, Dublin]. Aug 27, 2018, 00:02

+ analysis:

China's Bid to Silence Poet Highlights 'Human Rights Disaster' of Xinjiang Camps. RFA, 2018-08-27.

China lapses into a Gulag for Muslims. Hans-Christian Günther. The Pioneer. Sunday, 26 August 2018.

China extends Uighur crackdown beyond its borders: Beijing exerts pressure on neighbouring countries to monitor dissident émigrés. Emily Feng in Beijing. FT, 26 aug. 2018.

EDITORIAL: China’s other victims need support. Taipei Times, Sat, Aug 25, 2018 - Page 8.

“China can’t have it both ways” – The Citizen [South Africa], 24 Aug, 2018.

Overseas China scholars face self-censorship dilemma. Yojana Sharma. University World News, 24 August 2018, Issue 517.

As China detains Muslim Uyghurs, its economic clout mutes world criticism. Christian Science Monitor, August 24, 2018.

More than 1 in 10 residents of Xinjiang township held in political “re-education camps.” Radio Free Asia, August 24, 2018.

NGO reports custodial deaths, tortures in China's Xinjiang. Suryaa. International. Written by: IANS. Updated: Fri, Aug 24, 2018, 10:48 AM.

VIDEO: Rubio Discusses China's Oppression of Uyghur Muslims in Xinjiang. U.S. Senator Marco Rubio (R-FL), AUG 23 2018.

US Embassy ‘deeply concerned’ about journalist forced out of China, as watchdog decries ‘visa blackmail’. Jennifer Creery, HKFP, 24 August 2018 17:50.

The Persecution of the Uyghurs. By THE EDITORS. National Review, August 24, 2018 6:30 AM

The Repression of Uyghurs Is Now an All-Out War Against a People. Uyghurs fear that Beijing wants nothing less than for them to disappear as a people. By Omer Kanat. August 24, 2018.

Germany stops deporting Uygurs after asylum seeker is mistakenly sent to China, then vanishes. South China Morning Post, August 24, 2018.

Germany halts Uighur deportations to China: The German government has suspended deportations of Uighurs to China until further notice, according to a media report. The Muslim minority faces discrimination and persecution in the northwestern Xinjiang region. DW, 23.08.2018.

The stories of Kazakhstan citizens arrested in China. Published on August 24, 2018

Translated by Gene Bunin on August 23, 2018; Republished with Permission

US-based NGO reports custodial deaths, tortures at 'Muslim re-education centres' in China's Xinjiang. Firstpost, Indo-Asian News Service Aug 24, 2018 12:32:51 IST.

Young Son of Uyghurs Held in Xinjiang Political ‘Re-Education Camps’ Dies in Drowning Incident. RFA, 2018-08-23.

What Satellite Images Can Show Us about ‘Re-education’ Camps in Xinjiang. A Q&A with Shawn Zhang. ChinaFile, August 23, 2018.

No, the UN Did Not Report China Has ‘Massive Internment Camps’ for Uighur Muslims. Media outlets from Reuters to The Intercept falsely claimed the UN had condemned China for holding a million Uighurs in camps. The claim is based on unsourced allegations by two independent commission members, US-funded outfits and a shadowy opposition group. By Ben Norton and Ajit Singh., August 23, 2018.

BBC views China’s Xinjiang governance via bizarre lens. By Zhang Yi. Global Times 2018/8/23 21:43:40.

--from one of the main propaganda outlets.

China Forces Out Buzzfeed Journalist. By Austin Ramzy and Edward Wong. NYT, Aug. 23, 2018.

(= For writing about Xinjiang). See too:


Germany halts Uighur deportations to China: The German government has suspended deportations of Uighurs to China until further notice, according to a media report. The Muslim minority faces discrimination and persecution in the northwestern Xinjiang region. DW, 23.08.2018.

Kazakh population in China: an apple of discord or a bridge of friendship? The Politicon,

22-08-2018, 01:05.

(incl. on Sayragul Sauytbay )

'Mass murder' fear for China's Muslim Uighurs. BBC Hardtalk interview, Wednesday 22 August 2018 on BBC World News and the BBC News Channel and after on BBC iPlayer (UK only).

+ ;

-- Nury Turkel of the Uighur Human Rights Project has said various reports have suggested a million Muslim Uighurs are being held in so called internment camps in their homeland of Xinjiang.

He told BBC Hardtalk's Shaun Ley: "I am afraid of mass murder because we don't know, other than a few individuals have managed to leave the camps. People are not leaving. Where have those million people gone? What are they being charged of?"

Uighurs in US Celebrate Eid, With Their Thoughts Back Home. VOA, Last Updated: August 22, 2018 8:23 PM. Ashley Thompson; William Gallo.


Chine: La communauté musulmane chinoise est la plus touchée par la surveillance de masse. Par yoann. Publié le mercredi 22 août 2018.

A forgotten people? China is holding hundreds of thousands of minority Uighurs in re-education camps, and Chinese financial muscle is keeping much of the world silent about it. by June Cheng. WNG, August 22, 2018.

China’s re-education camps for a million Muslims: What everyone needs to know. Lucas Niewenhuis. SUPChina. August 22, 2018.

China’s Mass Internment Camps Have No Clear End in Sight: Around 1 million Uighurs have disappeared without trial. Worse may come. BY RIAN THUM. Foreign Policy, AUGUST 22, 2018, 9:00 AM.

A Petition for “the Disappeared” in the Uyghur & Kazakh Homelands in Northwest China. Darren Byler & Tahir Hamut started this petition to President of the People's Republic of China Xi Jinping. By Darren Byler and Tahir Hamut with the support of Concerned Scholars of Xinjiang. August 22, 2018.

China 'ejects' US journalist known for reporting on Xinjiang repression: Foreign correspondents condemn decision to deny visa to Megha Rajagopalan. Emma Graham-Harrison. The Guardian, Wed 22 Aug 2018 12.30 EDT Last modified on Wed 22 Aug 2018 12.58 EDT.

Harmony in Xinjiang is based on three principles. From Liu Xiaoming, Ambassador of China to the UK. Letter. FT, 21 August 2018.

--Chinese ambassadorial propaganda use, of open Western press. No reciprocity to be expected.

There's Jim Crow in China, but no one seems to care. By JONAH GOLDBERG. LA Times, AUG 21, 2018 | 4:15 AM.

Evidence of abuse, deaths in Xinjiang camps emerges. China Digital Times, August 20, 2018, 1:05 PM

China’s problem with the Uighurs. Beijing is using a law against extremism to hold an estimated one million Uighurs in camps as it attempts to “purify radical religious views”. Didi Tang reports. The Times, August 21 2018, 5:00pm.

Are the Uighurs one of China’s 56 nations? BY KUNI MIYAKE. The Japan Times, AUG 20, 2018.

Uyghurs are not descendants of Turks: Urumqi mayor. By Shan Jie. Global Times 2018/8/26 21:58:39


乌鲁木齐市长:维吾尔族不是突厥人后裔 乌鲁木齐晚报 - 2018-8-20

--Urumchi mayor advancing racist argument that the Uighurs are Chinese; denying historic links between Uighurs and other Turkic-speaking peoples

How to describe what's happening in Xinjiang? August 20, 2018. By Jerome Cohen

Why Is the NBA in Xinjiang? The league is running a training center in the middle of one of the world’s worst humanitarian atrocities. By Isaac Stone Fish. SLATE.COM, Aug 20, 20185:45 AM.

China’s ‘Private Army’ prowls the ‘New Silk Road’ - Security demands for multi-billion-dollar Belt and Road projects have led to the creation of independent paramilitary forces. By Gordon Watts August 20, 2018 7:03 PM (UTC+8)


Securitisation and Mass Detentions in Xinjiang by Rachel Harris, SOAS University of London. August 18, 2018. Central Eurasian Society Blog.

= Incl. good bibliography

China suggests its camps for Uighurs are just vocational schools. The Economist, August 18, 2018.

World Leaders Opt For China’s Money Over The Rights Of 1 Million Jailed Muslims: From the U.S. to Russia, Saudi Arabia to Iran, the desire for Chinese cash unites the international community and leaves the Uighurs’ prospects looking bleak. By Akbar Shahid Ahmed. Huffington Post, 08/18/2018 08:00 am ET.

Uyghurs’ present is the future for most Chinese. The Diplomat, August 18, 2018

This is what a re-education internment camp looks like from the outside. Adrian Zenz Retweeted Josh Chin.


The Dark Side of the China Dream: Erasing Ethnic Identity: The CCP wants to forge a strong nation by ruthlessly eliminating differences of culture, religion and ethnicity. By Nicholas Bequelin. August 17, 2018.

Xinjiang authorities detain Uyghur philanthropist, three others, over alleged ties to education fund. Radio Free Asia, August 17, 2018

China’s Uighur Camps Swell as Beijing Widens the Dragnet: Satellite images show expansion of ‘re-education’ centers in China’s Xinjiang region. By Eva Dou in Beijing, Jeremy Page in Almaty, Kazakhstan and Josh Chin in Turpan, China. WSJ, Aug. 17, 2018 3:41 p.m. ET.

+ video:

On China's Muslim crackdown. Al Jazeera, August 17, 2018.

Chinese landlord rents to Uyghurs, is arrested on “terror” charge. Boxun, August 17, 2018.

Australian families left devastated by China's mass detention of Uighurs in Xinjiang. By Lisa Murray. AFR. Aug 17 2018 at 11:00 PM; Updated Aug 17 2018 at 11:00 PM.

2018/08/17, Arts&Culture. CARTOON: China's Million Prisoner Question

Xinjiang and the stability paradox. The Diplomat, August 16, 2018

Southern Xinjiang residents get lectures on social harmony. By Liu Xuanzun Source:Global Times Published: 2018/8/16 21:38:40.

--another piece from one of the worst state propaganda sheets (not a 'news'-paper). See comment:

China Is Going to Outrageous Lengths to Surveil Its Own Citizens: New tech—including drones disguised as birds—can be a nightmare for Muslims in particular. Sigal Samuel. The Atlantic, Aug 16, 2018.

Rahile Dawut, la académica Uigur desaparecida en China. Andrea Khalfaoui, Diario Feminista, Agosto 16, 2018.

Where is Rahile Dawut? Nick Holdstock. London Review of Books, blog. 16 August 2018

Central Asia Struggles With Fallout From China’s Internment of Minorities: Kazakh case draws attention to plight of hundreds of thousands detained in Xinjiang. BY GENE A BUNIN | Foreign Policy, AUGUST 15, 2018, 10:04 AM.

How The World Learned China Is Holding Over A Million Muslims In Internment Camps: Regular citizens, reporters and rights groups adapted to get the truth out about China’s treatment of Uighur Muslims. By Akbar Shahid Ahmed. Huffington Post, WORLD NEWS 08/15/2018 02:01 pm ET.

China’s brutal crackdown on the Uighur Muslim minority, explained. A UN panel has said China detains about 1 million in secretive “reeducation camps,” where they face political indoctrination and torture. By Jen Aug 15, 2018, 9:00am EDT.

China’s Protracted Securitization of Xinjiang: Origins of a Surveillance State. By Pablo Rodríguez-Merino, Aug 15, 2018.

+ Includes excellent bibliography.

Is the White House in Any Position to Help Chinese Muslims? Rights advocates suggest the president's hostile rhetoric and policies on American Muslims jeopardize his administration's ability to advocate against abuses abroad. Massoud Hayoun. Aug 15, 2018.

外交部:新疆各民族和諧相處 任何造謠抹黑都是徒勞 (Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Ethnic groups in Xinjiang live in harmony; spreading rumors is futile). Radio Television Hong Kong - RTHK, August 14, 2018.

China denies internment of 1 million Muslims after UN expert calls Xinjiang a ‘no rights zone’. AFP / HKFP, 14 August 2018 00:01.

Beijing blasts 'anti-China forces' for claim of million Uighurs in prison camps. Foreign minister claims residents of Xinjiang are ‘living in peace and happiness’ after UN panel hears reports of secret internment camp. Reuters/ The Guardian. 14 Aug 2018 06.01 BST.

China says claims 1 million Uyghurs put in camps 'completely untrue'. By James Griffiths and Ben Westcott, CNN. Updated 0146 GMT (0946 HKT) August 14, 2018.

#Arabic scripts as Muslim symbols have been erased or removed from #mosques, homes and shops in East Turkestan (#Xinjiang), even from tombs by the Chinese authorities. 10:42 PM - 14 Aug 2018.

We can’t ignore this brutal cleansing in China. By Editorial Board, Washington Post. August 14, 2018 at 7:56 PM.

From laboratory in far west, China's surveillance state spreads quietly. Cate Cadell. Reuters, August 14, 2018 / 10:53 AM.

Chinese Cops Now Spying on American Soil: China is compiling a global registry of its ethnic minorities who have fled persecution, threatening to detain the families of those who don’t comply. The message: Nowhere is safe. Daily Beast, Bethany Allen-Ebrahimian. 08.14.18 5:08 AM ET.

Governo chinês nega "detenção arbitrária" e "centros de reeducação". Agência Angola Press, 14 August 2018. [Link TBD]

Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination reviews the report of China. GENEVA (13 August 2018).

China state media justify Muslim Uighur crackdown to prevent “China's Syria”
Deutsche Welle, August 13, 2018 .

China has prevented “great tragedy” in Xinjiang, state-run paper says. Channel NewsAsia, August 13, 2018.

Jornal do PC chinês defende repressão sobre minoria étnica muçulmana.

Agência Angola Press, 13 August 2018 [Link TBD].

China: Xinjiang Camps Are Actually Vocational Schools for Criminals: Official says widely cited estimate of a million Muslims under detention is ‘completely untrue’. By Eva Dou and Josh Chin. WSJ, Updated Aug. 13, 2018 11:07 p.m. ET.

Beijing Denies Accusations of Rights Abuse at Xinjiang Camps. CDT, August 13, 2018, 4:54 PM.

= With many more relevant links.

China denies violating minority rights amid detention claims. UN panel says 1m ethnic Uighur Muslims being held in internment camps in Xinjiang. Lily Kuo in Beijing. The Guardian, 13 Aug 2018 13.46 BST.

‘No Such Thing’: China Denies U.N. Reports of Uighur Detention Camps. By Nick Cumming-Bruce. NYT, Aug. 13, 2018.

Prominent Uighur Scholar Missing, Feared Detained. By Elizabeth Redden. Inside Higher Ed, August 13, 2018.

Letter of Concern Over the Disappearance of Rahile Dawut. American Anthropological Association, August 13, 2018.

China flat out denies the mass incarceration of Xinjiang’s Uyghurs as testimonies trickle out
Quartz, August 13, 2018 .

《环球时报》为新疆高压政策作辩护 (Global Times defends Xinjiang's high-pressure policy)
Deutsche Welle, August 13, 2018 .

One Million Muslim Uighurs Have Been Detained by China, the U.N. Says. Where’s the Global Outrage? Mehdi Hasan. The Intercept, August 13, 2018, 10:04 p.m.

China denies accusations of creating internment camps for Uyghurs. Nathan VanderKlippe, Asia Correspondent. Beijing. Includes correction. Published August 13, 2018.

Xinjiang policies justified. By Liu Xin Source:Global Times Published: 2018/8/13 23:13:39.

(By one of the main propaganda sheets)

“China denies internment of a million mostly Muslim Uighur minorities” – Business Day [South Africa], 13 Aug 2018:

社评:捍卫新疆和平稳定,就是最大的人权 (Global Times: “Preserving peace and stability inXinjiang is the greatest human right”). Global Times, August 12, 2018.

Satellite Imagery of Xinjiang “Re-education Camp” №33 新疆再教育集中营卫星图 33

Re-education camp in Aksu. 阿克苏市第二职业技能教育培训中心, 41°07'02.0"N 80°09'42.3"E

Shawn Zhang, Aug 12, 2018.

China forcing Uyghur Muslims into ‘re-education camps’, violation of rights, says UN

UN human rights panel said that it had received many credible reports to back the claim that people from the Muslim Uyghur community were being sent to these camps in the name of fighting religious extremism. Hindustan Times. Updated: Aug 11, 2018 23:28 IST.

联合国:可信报告揭示中国秘密关押上百万维吾尔人. 作者 弗林 发表时间 11-08-2018 更改时间 11-08-2018 发表时间 01:01.

Uyghur man's demand for China to stop repressing his people. Video: A Uyghur man in Mississauga decries Chinese repression of his people, describing their actions as "total ethnic cleansing." Globe and Mail, 11 aug. 2018.

Xinjiang an Obstacle to Belt and Road Success. China Digital Times, August 10, 2018, 6:12 PM.

(See also the: "Related Stories")

A call for a UN investigation, and U.S. Sanctions, on the human rights disaster unfolding in Xinjiang. China Change, August 10, 2018.

[Important appeal by Chinese intellectuals and others]


Hu Lianhe's Statement before CERD, Aug. 2018: Consideration of China (Cont'd) - 2655th Meeting 96th Session Committee on Elimination of Racial Discrimination.

James Leibold @jleibold 30 aug 2018.

China Uighurs: One million held in political camps, UN told. BBC, August 10, 2018.

Talk East Turkestan. Published on Aug 9, 2018. The #Uyghur Human Rights Project co-hosted side event at the US Senate on Religious Persecution in #China on the occasion of Ministerial to Advance International Religious Freedom organized by US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo on July 24, 2018.

Tens of Thousands of Xinjiang’s Kuchar County Residents Held in Political ‘Re-Education Camps’. RFA, 2018-08-09.

One million Muslim Uighurs held in secret China camps: UN panel: Vice chairperson of anti-discrimination committee says members of ethnic community treated as 'enemies of the state'., 10 aug 2018.

UN rights panel grills China over mass detention of Uyghurs. Radio Free Asia, August 10, 2018.

UN panel confronts China over reports that it holds a million Uighurs in camps. New York Times. August 10, 2018.

U.N. says it has credible reports that China holds million Uighurs in secret camps. Stephanie Nebehay. Reuters. August 10, 2018 / 11:14 AM / Updated.

UN committee on Elimination of Racial Discrimination, Aug. 10, 2018.

= " confronting the Chinese delegation with an extremely detailed account of mass extra-judicial internment in Xinjiang."

New evidence emerges of China forcing Muslims into “reeducation” camps.

Emily Rauhala, Washington Post, Aug. 10, 2018.

UN committee accuses China of turning Uyghur-dominated region into ‘no-rights zone’. Nathan VanderKlippe Asia Correspondent. Beijing. The Globe and Mail, August 10, 2018. Updated.

Disappearance of Uyghur Scholar an Example of Attempts to Erase Uyghur Culture. August 10, 2018. PEN America,

Star Scholar Disappears as Crackdown Engulfs Western China. By Chris Buckley and Austin Ramzy. NYT, Aug. 10, 2018.

“UN says it has credible reports that China holds million Uighurs in secret camps” – Eye Witness News [South Africa], August 10, 2018:

China’s Campaign Against Muslim Minorities: The suppression of the Uyghurs deserves the world’s attention. By Marco Rubio. WSJ, Aug. 9, 2018 6:51 p.m. ET.

Xinjiang Political ‘Re-Education Camps’ Treat Uyghurs ‘Infected by Religious Extremism’: CCP Youth League. RFA, 2018-08-08.

-- Leaked recording of internal Chinese government instructions in bio-racist terror lingo.


Why Chinese repression in Xinjiang could be belt and road's stumbling block: A police state full of brutal reeducation camps in Xinjiang will merely provoke a terrifying backlash - and the Belt and Road will be among the casualties. Mihir S Sharma | Bloomberg Last Updated at August 8, 2018 07:55 IST

Xinjiang political “re-education camps” treat Uyghurs “infected by religious extremism”: CCP Youth League. Radio Free Asia, August 8, 2018.

“We’re a people destroyed”: Why Uighur Muslims across China are living in fear. The Guardian, August 7, 2018.

More Xinjiang residents sent to re-education camps. China Digital Times, August 7, 2018.

China 'Disappears' Its Uighurs, Silences the World With Money. Richard Bernstein, RCI, 8/7/18

Evidence of New Transformation Through Education Camps in Xinjiang (Video)

08/06/2018 BY ADMIN.

"No releases" of thousands held for years in Xinjiang township political "re-education Camps." Radio Free Asia, August 6, 2018.

More Xinjiang Residents Sent to Re-Education Camps. China Digital Times, August 6, 2018, 6:50 PM.

--Good summary.

The Hole at the Heart of China’s Silk Road: A seething and repressed Xinjiang can’t become a hub for trade.

By Mihir Sharma. Bloomberg Opinion. August 7, 2018, 6:00 PM EDT.

In new admin error, Germany expels Uighur man to China. Channel NewsAsia, August 6, 2018.


德国误将维吾尔难民遣返回中国 音讯全无 (Germany mistakenly sends Uyghur refugee back to China). Deutsche Welle, August 6, 2018.德国误将维吾尔难民遣返回中国-音讯全无/a-44967857?maca=chi-rss-chi-ca-1044-rdf&zhongwen=simp


“There is no sign of life”: Fears for Uighur man after Germany mistakenly expels him to China. Hong Kong Free Press, August 7, 2018.


In new admin error, Germany expels Uighur man to China. AFP News. 6 August 2018.


Germany Reportedly Mistakenly Deports Uyghur Man To China. August 06, 2018 14:52 GMT.

Crackdown in Xinjiang: Where have all the people gone? Emily Feng in Urumqi. FT, 5 aug 2018.

Chinese handling of Kazakhs a bump in Belt and Road: Astana’s economic ties with Beijing leave it with a headache in dealing with public anger over the internment of its nationals in Xinjiang’s ‘re-education centres’. By Eduard Fernández, SCMP, 4 Aug 2018.

Le Xinjiang sous la chape de « rectification. » 4 août 2018 • Jean-Paul Yacine

Sayragul Sauytbay meets crowd outside the court in Kazachstan after it just decided (Aug. 1), to NOT deport her back to the camps in China, from where she fled.

See video published Aug. 4, 2018, at:


Ethnic Kazakh Who Testified About 'Reeducation Camps' In China Will Not Be Deported.

RFE/RL's Kazakh Service. Last Updated: August 01, 2018 16:08 GMT.

Three Million, Mostly Uyghurs, Detained in Xinjiang Political ‘Re-Education’ Camps, ‘Education Sessions’. RFA, 2018-08-03.


In Uighur language:


(with camp photo)

China: Massive Numbers of Uyghurs & Other Ethnic Minorities Forced into Re-education Programs. CHRD, August 3, 2018.

Chinese ‘re-education camp’ whistleblower freed by Kazakhstan; will not be extradited to China. AFP, HKFP, 2 August 2018 09:34.

Ethnic cleansing makes a comeback — in China. By Josh Rogin, Columnist, Washington Post, August 2, 2018.


Silence from international community as thousands sent to ‘re-education camps’ in China’s latest ‘religious extremism’ crackdown. Authorities have destroyed religious buildings, banned long beards and people are forced to eat pork against their beliefs. Josh Rogin, The Washington Post. n.d., August 2018

‘Everyone was silent, endlessly mute’: Former Chinese re-education instructor speaks out. Nathan VanderKlippe, Asia Correspondent, Beijing. Globe and Mail; Updated August 2, 2018.

= w. Sayragul Sauytbay.

+ Also see her brief TV interview (but more about Kazach prisons than about Xinjiang experience, on which see Globe & Mail interview above):

+ must see, moment of liberation by Kazach court:


July 2018:

A parallel NGO report by World Uyghur Congress. World Uyghur Congress, July 2018

Gene A. Bunin: How the “Happiest Muslims in the World” are Coping with Their Happiness. July 31, 2018.

Accounts Show Impact of Repression in Xinjiang. China Digital Times, July 31, 2018.

How a Chinese region that accounts for just 1.5% of the population became one of the most intrusive police states in the world. Tara Francis Chan, Business Insider, [31 july 2018].

‘We’re a people destroyed’: why Uighur Muslims across China are living in fear.

Gene A Bunin has spent the past 18 months talking to Uighur restaurant workers all over China. These conversations reveal how this Muslim minority feel the daily threat of arrest, detention and ‘re-education’. 7 Aug 2018 01.00 EDT; Last modified on Tue 7 Aug 2018 06.28 EDT.

= orig.:

“Crimes Against Humanity” in Xinjiang Draw Attention. China Digital Times, July 30, 2018.

La Chine a transformé le Xinjiang en prison pour les Ouïghours musulmans. La Chine a placé cette région sous haute surveillance, avec des moyens sécuritaires sans précédent dans le monde. Au nom de la lutte contre le terrorisme, un million de personnes, essentiellement des musulmans, serait emprisonné. Des incarcérations arbitraires, analyse le chercheur Marc Julienne, pour Ouest-France. Recueilli par Christelle GUIBERT. Publié le 29/07/2018 à 20h30.

KAZAKHSTAN: Official's Testimony Sheds New Light On Chinese 'Reeducation Camps' For Muslims. RFERL, July 29, 2018 10:52 GMT. By Ron Synovitz; Asylkhan Mamashuly; Nurtai Lakhanuly.

US urged to sanction Chinese officials overseeing sweeping crackdown in Muslim region. HKFP, 27 July 2018 17:23. Catherine Lai.

China's Xinjiang Province A Surveillance State Unlike Any the World Has Ever Seen. By Bernhard Zand. Der Spiegel, July 26, 2018 02:01PM.

China's crimes against humanity you've never heard of. By Michael Caster. CNN. Updated 1545 GMT (2345 HKT) July 26, 2018.

(Awful headline)

US CONGRESSIONAL HEARING on situation in Xinjiang -- "Surveillance, Suppression, and Mass Detention: Xinjiang’s Human Rights Crisis." Thursday, July 26, 10am-12pm,’s-human-rights-crisis


Censorship, Geopolitical Time Bombs, and China’s Islamophobia Problem. By: Matt Schrader. July 25, 2018.

Islamic Leaders Have Nothing to Say About China’s Internment Camps for Muslims. Hundreds of thousands of Uighur have been detained without trial in China's western region of Xinjiang. BY NITHIN COCA | JULY 24, 2018, 10:23 PM.

China’s ‘re-education centers’ draw attention in Kazakhstan trial of former worker at Xinjiang camp. AFP-JIJI. July 20, 2018.

Video: ‘This person will simply disappear’: Chinese secretive ‘reeducation camps’ in spotlight at Kazakh trial. By Christopher Rickleton with Ben Dooley in Beijing. 17 July 2018 12:49, AFP / HKFP.

China Studies between Censorship and Self-censorship. Op-Ed by Kevin Carrico. Made in China, July 17, 2018.

Spy For Us — Or Never Speak To Your Family Again: China is using its huge digital surveillance system, and the threat of sending family members to reeducation camps, to pressure minorities to spy on their fellow exiles. Posted on Jul 9, 2018, 12:57:49 PM GMT. Megha Rajagopalan, BuzzFeed News Reporter, Reporting From Istanbul, Turkey.

Rising star footballer is among more than a million Uyghurs sent to Chinese ‘re-education’ camps. 7 July 2018 20:00 Global Voices.


How China Utilized Misinformation to Legitimize Repression in Xinjiang. Project 2049 Institute. July 6, 2018.

Uyghur exile group leader’s mother died in Xinjiang detention center. Radio Free Asia, July 2, 2018.

Ulkomaat: Hyvinkäällä asuvien Harrin ja Tiinan vanhemmat katosivat ”isän­maalliselle koulutus­leirille”, joka on suunnattu Kiinan muslimi­vähemmistölle. Virve Kähkönen HS, Katriina Pajari HS. Helsining Sanomat, July 1, 2018. Julkaistu: 1.7. 2:00 , Päivitetty: 1.7. 9:23.

(In Finnish)

Efter kun 20 dage i genopdragelseslejren var Omir klar til at begå selvmord: Kinas nordvestlige Xinjiang-provins er blevet en af verdens mest gennemførte politistater. DNA-prøver, ansigtsscanning og digitale fodspor samles og bruges til at overvåge de lokale muslimers mindste skridt. Op mod en million skønnes at være blevet sendt i politiske genopdragelseslejre. Berlingske, Søndag D. 1. JULI 2018 KL. 10:52. Af Lene Winther.

(In Danish: "After 20 days in the camp, Omir was ready to commit suicide")

June 2018:

Translation: Propaganda in Urumqi Amid Crackdown. Josh Rudolph, China Digital Times. June 28, 2018, 7:59 PM.

‘No cracks, no blind spots, no gaps’: Chinese firms cash in on Xinjiang’s growing police state. AFP/HKFP, 27 June 2018 15:00.

The Borderlands of a Brave New World. By Geremie Barmé, et al [see esp. the sections by David Brophy]. China Heritage, 26 June 2018.

Xinjiang Rapidly Building Crematoria to Extinguish Uyghur Funeral Traditions. RFA, 2018-06-26.

Pete Irwin @PeteCIrwin [Uyghur Congress]. We briefed many supportive states on the fact that at least one million #Uyghurs are arbitrarily detained in political indoctrination camps at #HRC38 in Geneva @UNHumanRights. No excuse that information is not widely available to member states, it's now a choice to act or not. 22 Jun 2018 from Geneva, Switzerland.

While Trump's 'zero-tolerance' immigration policy sparks controversy in the US, China is detaining hundreds of thousands of legal citizens for doing nothing wrong. Tara Francis Chan. Business Insider, June 22, 2018, 1:36 AM.

Chinese-Uyghur PhD Student Feared Detained in Re-Education Camp. Scholars At Risk. June 22, 2018.

(on Guligeina Tashimaimaiti/Gulgine Tashmemet)

Reeducation Returns to China: Will the Repression in Xinjiang Influence Beijing's Social Credit System? By Adrian Zenz. Foreign Affairs, June 20, 2018.

Is China building 'political re-education' camps for Muslim minorities? In China's Muslim-majority Xinjiang region, there have been reports of "re-education" camps where over 200,000 "suspects" are being held. DW spoke with researcher Adrian Lenz about the veracity of the reports. Hans Spross, DW, 21.06.2018.

China: Uyghur pop musician and lyric writer detained, concerns for his well-being. PEN international, Thursday 21 June 2018 - 5:03pm.

Time to denounce China’s Muslim gulag. By James Leibold. 19 June 2018. Lowy Institute, Australia.

U.N. rights boss takes aim at U.S migration policy, China, Myanmar in final speech. Stephanie Nebehay, Reuters. June 18, 2018 / 8:10 AM.

China is using terrorist threats to culturally cleanse its west. By Michael Clarke, ANU. East Asia Forum, 18 June 2018.

Comparing the Brainwashing of Uighurs With the Party’s Anti-Falun Gong Campaign. Matthew Robertson. ChinaChange, June 18, 2018.

Ola Wong: Tortyrlägren som Kina inte vill kännas vid. SvD, 16 juni 2018. (in Swedish)

Remembering Tiananmen; The Uighur Crackdown. Mary Kissel and Hugo Restall on the 29th anniversary of the June 4 massacre and a disturbing turn in Xinjiang. WSJ, 6/4/2018 12:30PM.

"Islam in Xinjiang: De-extremification or violation of religious space?" Written by Joanne Smith Finley. Asia Dialogue, June 15, 2018.


Xinjiang’s re-education system is a hybrid of Gulag and Indian Residential School Gulag Style: When we talk about Xinjiang's re-education system, we often compare it with Soviet's Gulag. Satellite imageries also confirm many re-education camps are heavily guarded detention facilities like Gulag or Nazi camps. Shawn Zhang June 12, 2018.

How Should the World Respond to Intensifying Repression in Xinjiang? A ChinaFile Conversation. June 4, 2018.

May 2018:

China’s Uyghur Repression: In the name of combating Islamic extremism, the Chinese Communist Party has embarked on a massive campaign of harassment and detention of Uyghurs in the Xinjiang province. By David Brophy. The Jacobin, May 31, 2018.

Apartheid with Chinese characteristics: China has turned Xinjiang into a police state like no other. Totalitarian determination and modern technology have produced a massive abuse of human rights. The Economist, May 31st 2018 | HOTAN, XINJIANG PROVINCE.

China is secretly imprisoning close to 1 million people — but they've left 2 big pieces of evidence behind. Tara Francis Chan. Business Insider, May. 30, 2018.

Xinjiang Jails Uyghur Civil Servants Over Lack of Enthusiasm For Anti-Extremist Campaigns. RFA,2018-05-30.

Mapping China’s Xinjiang Internment Camps for Uyghur and Kazakh Muslims., May 24th, 2018 - 10:15 GMT via’s-internment-camps-its-ethnic-minorities-1136100

List of Re-education Camps in Xinjiang 新疆再教育集中营列表. By Shawn Zhang. May 20, 2018.

= Updated later. See too :

Muslims forced to drink alcohol and eat pork in China’s ‘re-education’ camps, former inmate claims. 'The psychological pressure is enormous when you have to criticise yourself, denounce your thinking,' says detainee. By Gerry Shih; Dake Kang; Independent Staff. The Independent, Friday 18 May 2018 17:31

Survivors of China’s far west political camps detail ordeal. By GERRY SHIH. AP, May 18, 2018.


Chinese mass-indoctrination camps evoke Cultural Revolution. Associated Press, May 17, 2018.

Former inmates of China’s Muslim "re-education" camps tell of brainwashing, torture. Washington Post, May 17, 2018.

Details Emerge About Xinjiang Reeducation Camp System. CDT, May 17, 2018, 5:41 PM.

Former inmates of China’s Muslim "re-education" camps tell of brainwashing, torture. Washington Post, May 17, 2018.

中国如何对少数民族进行 “教育转化” [What really happens in China’s “re-education” camps]. The New York Times, May 16, 2018 - Chinese version.

(English: )

Adrian Zenz. "Thoroughly Reforming them Toward a Healthy Heart Attitude" - China's Political Re-Education Campaign in Xinjiang. Manuscript, May 15, 2018.

What Really Happens in China’s ‘Re-education’ Camps. By Rian Thum. New York Times, May 15, 2018.

New evidence for China’s political re-education campaign in Xinjiang. Jamestown Foundation, May 15, 2018.

China: Visiting Officials Occupy Homes in Muslim Region. ‘Becoming Family’ Campaign Intensifies Repression in Xinjiang. May 13, 2018 8:00PM EDT.

学者:新疆再教育营关人或近百万 警察抓人有指标 (Xinjiang police puts nearly 1 million in re-education camp to meet quota: Scholar). Voice of America, May 8, 2018.

新疆“培训中心”系统性强迫灌服不明药物 女人停经男人丧失生殖功能 (Xinjiang said to systemically sterilize people at re-education camps). China Aid, May 4, 2018.

China's police state in Xinjiang. May 4, 2018.

(Panel discussion on the Xinjiang police state with James Millward, a professor of history at Georgetown University; Rian Thum, an associate professor of history at Loyola University in New Orleans, et al].

Uighur journalist Gulchehra Hoja: 'I have my own sad story to tell': DW spoke to Uighur journalist Gulchehra Hoja who, along with some of her colleagues, accuses the Chinese authorities of arresting her family members as retribution for her reports about the plight of the Uighurs. DW, 05.03.2018. Srinivas Mazumdaru (Interview).

+ at bottom, an excellent list of more reports.

April 2018:

Navigating Xinjiang’s security checkpoints: It’s not hard to spot the ethno-racial profiling Chinese authorities use to clamp down on Uighur resistance. Darren Byler April 30, 2018.

‘Eradicate the tumors’: Chinese civilians drive Xinjiang crackdown on separatism. BY BEN DOOLEY. AFP-JIJI. Japan Times, APR 26, 2018.

UHRP releases new report- ‘The Bingtuan: China’s Paramilitary Colonizing Force in East Turkestan’. Published Thu, 04/26/2018 - 10:45. Uyghur Human Rights Project.

Kazakh Man Recounts 'Reeducation' In Western Chinese Camp. Bruce Pannier, QISHLOQ OVOZI blog. April 26, 2018 13:28 GMT.

Xinjiang Authorities Detain Uyghur Pro Footballer For ‘Visiting Foreign Countries’. RFA 2018-04-13.

China’s Campaign Against Uighur Diaspora Ramps Up: In its attempts to control Uighurs abroad, the Chinese government is holding families hostage. BY MARTIN DE BOURMONT | APRIL 3, 2018, 11:10 AM.

March 2018:

The biopolitics of China’s “war on terror” and the exclusion of the Uyghurs. By Sean R. Roberts. Critical Asian Studies, Volume 50, Issue 2, June 2018, Pages: 232-258. Published online: 22 March 2018. DOI: 10.1080/14672715.2018.1454111.

Chinese Police Are Demanding Personal Information From Uighurs in France: Officials have threatened to detain relatives of those who don’t comply. By Bethany Allen-Ebrahimian. March 2, 2018, 4:53 PM.

February 2018:

A Summer Vacation in China’s Muslim Gulag: How one university student was almost buried by the "people's war on terror." BY SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT, Foreign Policy, FEBRUARY 28, 2018, 1:35 PM.

Uyghur Student in US Faces Down Chinese Threats to 'Turn Him In'. RFA, 2018-02-27.

Images in Red: Han Culture, Uyghur Performers, Chinese New Year. By Darren Byler (雷风). February 23, 2018.

(Specifically on the forced assimilation to Chinese =Han-Chinese cultural forms.

(See more on the insightful blog:

Uyghur Extraditions Reveal China's Growing Surveillance State. 2018/02/13

January 2018:

China 'holding at least 120,000 Uighurs in re-education camps': US-backed news group claims Mao-style camps are springing up on China’s western border. Tom Phillips in Beijing. The Guardian, Thursday, 25 Jan 2018 03.03 EST.

Also see (before 2018):

Twelve Days in Xinjiang: How China’s Surveillance State Overwhelms Daily Life. The government has turned the remote region into a laboratory for its high-tech social controls. By Josh Chin and Clément Bürge. Photographs by Giulia Marchi for The Wall Street Journal. Updated Dec. 19, 2017 10:58 p.m. ET.

China: Minority Region Collects DNA from Millions: Private Information Gathered by Police, Under Guise of Public Health Program. HRW, December 13, 2017 10:48AM EST.

Chen Quanguo: The Strongman Behind Beijing’s Securitization Strategy in Tibet and Xinjiang. China Brief Volume 17, Issue 12. By: Adrian Zenz, James Leibold. September 21, 2017 06:26 AM

China’s Uygur youth urged to love motherland and learn Mandarin to avoid ‘terrorist’ label

SCMP, PUBLISHED : Thursday, 27 April, 2017, 3:18pm; UPDATED : Thursday, 27 April, 2017, 10:54pm.

The slow creep and chilling effect of China’s censorship. Nithin Coca. Daily Dot, Aug 20, 2016 at 3:00AM | Last updated Aug 29, 2016 at 10:38AM.

Xinjiang’s Uygurs ‘not radical Muslims’, says China’s former culture minister: Wang Meng, who spent 15 years in region before becoming culture chief, says the majority are smeared by actions of a tiny minority. SCMP, PUBLISHED : Saturday, 11 June, 2016, 2:01am; UPDATED : Friday, 06 January, 2017, 1:38pm.

Xinjiang, Terror, and China’s Contempt for Freedom of the Press. By J. Michael Cole, December 3, 2015.

A Voice From China’s Uighur Homeland, Reporting From the U.S. The Saturday Profile. By Michael Forsythe. July 31, 2015.

China: End Two-Tier Travel System for Tibetans, Others: Passport Cancellations Used to Restrict Religious Minorities’ Rights. HRW, July 13, 2015 3:56PM EDT.

China Remodels an Ancient Silk Road City, and an Ethnic Rift Widens. By Dan Levin. NYT, March 5, 2014.

Sweden extends sentence for Uighur spy. AFP/The Local, 18 September 2010.

(In 2018: )

3. Select academic works on Uighurs & others in Xinjiang

Baumer, Christoph. The History of Central Asia. Vol. 1: The Age of the Steppe Warriors; Vol. 2: The Age of the Silk Road. London, New York: I. B. Tauris, 2012; 2014.

Bellér-Hann, Ildikó. Community matters in Xinjiang, 1880-1949: Towards a historical anthropology of the Uyghur. Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2008.

Bellér-Hann, Ildikó et al, eds. Situating the Uyghurs between China and Central Asia. Aldershot, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate Pub., 2007.

Bovingdon, Gardner. The Uyghurs: Strangers in their own land. New York: Columbia University Press, 2010.

Brox, Trine, and Ildikó Bellér-Hann, eds. On the Fringes of the Harmonious Society: Tibetans and Uyghurs in Socialist China. Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2014.

Byler, Darren. Spirit Breaking: Uyghur Dispossession, Culture Work and Terror Capitalism in a Chinese Global City. Seattle: University of Washington, 2018.

Cesaro, M. Cristina. "Consuming identities: Food and resistance among the Uyghur in contemporary Xinjiang." Inner Asia 2.2 (2000), 225-38.

Cliff, Tom. 2009, 'Neo Oasis: The Xinjiang Bingtuan in the Twenty-first Century', Asian Studies Review 33.1, pp. 83-106.

Cliff, Tom. Oil and Water: Being Han in Xinjiang. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016.

Dwyer, Arienne M. The Xinjiang Conflict: Uyghur Identity, Language Policy and Political Discourse. Washington: East-West Center Publications, Vol. 15, 2005.

Dautcher, Jay. Down a Narrow Road: Identity and Masculinity in a Uyghur Community in Xinjiang, China. Harvard University Press, 2009.

Gladney, Dru. Muslim Chinese: Ethnic Nationalism in the People's Republic (Harvard University Press, 1991, 2nd ed., 1996)

Hann, Chris. Smith in Beijing, Stalin in Urumchi: Ethnicity, political economy, and violence in Xinjiang, 1759–2009. Focaal—Journal of Global and Historical Anthropology 60 (2011): 108–123.

Hayes, Anna, and Michael E. Clarke, eds. Inside Xinjiang: Space, Place and Power in China's Muslim Far Northwest. London and New York: Routledge, 2016

Hierman, Brent. The Pacification of Xinjiang: Uighur Protest and the Chinese State, 1988-2002. Problems of Post-Communism 54.3 (May-June 2007), 48-62.

Holdstock, Nick. China's forgotten people: Xinjiang, terror and the Chinese state. London: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd., 2015.

Ilham Tohti, "Present-Day Ethnic Problems in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region: Overview and Recommendations." 2015 (2014). May 19, 2015.

Ilham Tohti, Statement after Receiving a Life Sentence for Allegedly “Separatist” Crimes, (2014),


'My Father Shouldn't Be in Jail At All’. RFA, 2016-10-17. Reported by Ng Yik-tung and Sing Man for RFA's Cantonese Service, and Mihray Abdilim for the Uyghur Service. Translated by Mamatjan Juma and Luisetta Mudie. Edited by Luisetta Mudie.

[Jewher Ilham on her father, Ilham Tohti]


Jacobs, Justin M. Xinjiang and the Modern Chinese State. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 2016.

China: What the Uighurs See. Review by Ian Johnson of Carolyn Drake’s Wild Pigeon. April 13, 2015.

Karrar, Hasan H. Resistance to state-orchestrated modernization inXinjiang: The genesis of unrest in the multiethnic frontier. China Information 32.2, July 2018, pp. 183-202 [First Published Dec. 12, 2017].

Kaltman, Blaine. Under the Heel of the Dragon: Islam, Racism, Crime, and the Uighur in China . Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2014.

Levi, Scott C., and Ron Sela, editors, _Islamic Central Asia: An Anthology

of Historical Sources_. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2009.

Millward, James. Violent Separatism in Xinjiang: A Critical Assessment. East- West Center Washington, 2004.

Sautman, Barry. "Preferential policies for ethnic minorities in China: The case of Xinjiang." In William Safran, ed. Nationalism and Ethnoregional Conflicts in China. London: Frank Cass, 1998, 86-118.

Sautman, Barry. Is Xinjiang an internal colony? Inner Asia 2.2 (2000) 239-71.

Schluessel, Eric. History, identity, and mother-tongue education in Xinjiang. Central Asian Survey 28.4 (2009): 383-402.

Smith Finley, Joanne. "'Ethnic Anomaly' or Modern Uyghur Survivor? A Case Study of the Minkaohan Hybrid Identity in Xinjiang," in Ildikó Bellér-Hahn et al., eds. Situating the Uyghurs Between China and Central Asia. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007.

Starr, S. Frederick. Xinjiang: China's Muslim Borderland. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis, 2004; London: Routledge, 2015.

Thum, Rian R. The sacred routes of Uyghur history. PhD Diss., Harvard University, 2010. UMI 3415383.

Thum, Rian. Uighurs in modern China. Oxford Research Encyclopedias, April 2018.

(Excellent background)

Thum, Rian. Modular history: Identity maintenance before Uyghur nationalism. Journal of Asian Studies 71.3 (2012), 627-53.

Törnvall, Gunilla. Svenskar bidrog till Östturkestans skriftspråk. Svenska Dagbladet, Publ.: 12 november 2006, 20.44. Last updated: 11 oktober 2007, 08.50.

(Interesting article in Swedish on the work of earlier-generation Swedish scholars like Gunnar Jarring, in Xinjiang).

Zhang, Shaoying and Derek McGhee. Social policies and ethnic conflict in China: Lessons from Xinjiang. Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.

4. Film

Ilham Tohti Documentary. China Change, ed. 2015.


--A film about Xinjiang. "Inspired by the legacy of Jackie Robinson, Uyghur university student Parhat has a miraculous dream that baseball will heal Xinjiang’s racial divide and lift the spirits of his people."

Lost Nation: Stories from the Uyghur diaspora. Forced Migration Online website.

--In this documentary five Uyghurs from five cities around the world tell their personal story of migration from Xinjiang, East Turkistan, People's Republic of China.

5. More sources and bibliographies

There are frequent research updates on the Xinjiang camps on Twitter, #XinjiangCamps, by scholars and others such as Adrian Zenz,@adrianzenz; Shawn Zhang, @shawnwzhang; Rian Thum, @RianThum; JoSmith Finley, @j_smithfinley; Maya Wang, @wang_maya; TimothyGrose, @GroseTimothy;@AYNUR22630941;@uyghur_nur; @AbdugheniSabit, and more.

Also, UW-Seattle anthropologist Darren Byler's blog:

Lots more materials on the Uighurs and Xinjiang are available -- f ex on Ilham Tohti, famous "moderate" Uighur professor in Peking recently sentenced to life in prison. See above, on him and his brave daughter Jewher Ilham who is a student in exile in the USA and is active on behalf of her father despite the tragedy and sorrow. See also books and studies by Rian Thum, James Millward, James Leibold, Gardner Bovingdon, Jay Dautcher, and many others, some listed above.

For more, see:

"Xinjiang reeducation camps." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Judy Woelfel, "Annotated Bibliography: Uighur Identity and Relations with China" (2010?),

"Annotated Bibliography of the History and Culture of Eastern Turkistan, Jungharia/Zungaria/Dzungaria, Chinese Central Asia, and Sinkiang/Xinjiang (for the 16th-20th centuries CE, excluding most travel narratives)," by Nathan Light [Miami University. Oxford, Ohio]

Also, more bibliographies on these pages: