Civil Society Calls for Urgent Measures to Protect Uyghurs at Risk of Refoulement


June 17, 2022

Ahead of World Refugee Day 2022, a group of 22 refugee and human rights groups and 50 Uyghur organizations are calling on governments and international organizations to take urgent steps to protect Uyghurs and other Turkic peoples at imminent risk of refoulement. As atrocity crimes unfold in the Uyghur region of China—including mass detention, forced labour, and torture—Uyghurs outside China, including human rights defenders, are subject to persistent barriers to international protection and risks of deportation.

Uyghurs have increasingly been recognized as experiencing persecution as a particular group in their region of origin, yet little is known about transnational repression they face in the diaspora. Uyghurs who are not firmly settled in third countries are facing an exceptional risk of detention and refoulement. Many have faced harassment and intimidation by local authorities, often at the request of Chinese authorities, and in some cases have been subjected to prolonged detention.

While access to international protection mechanisms like the UNHCR remains limited, transnational repression acts as deterrence to human rights activism and a practical threat to the exercise of individual rights, including the right to be protected from torture, and inhumane and degrading treatment.

In order to provide adequate protection to Uyghurs and other Turkic peoples at risk, immediate steps should be taken. Importantly, access to protection should not be impeded by a lack of documentation. Our organizations call on:

  • Governments to implement proactive resettlement programs where there is a risk of refoulement, and be alert to cases of imminent deportation on an emergency basis;
  • Governments to reject criminal justice cooperation requests against Uyghurs that put them at risk of refoulement, and ensure that Uyghurs and other Turkic peoples are effectively protected against the misuse of international databases and alerts by the Chinese authorities;
  • Parliamentary committees who have passed resolutions denouncing human rights violations perpetrated against the Uyghur people and other Turkic peoples to launch enquiries on transnational repression, and engage civil society organisations in this process; and
  • UNHCR to continue registering Uyghurs in need of international protection, including in detention, and to issue a non-return advisory for China regarding groups systematically persecuted, such as Uyghurs and other Turkic peoples.

For over two decades, Uyghurs living outside China have faced efforts by Chinese authorities to pressure foreign governments to detain and forcibly transfer them back to China. Research shows that more than 1,500 Uyghurs, including many who are human rights defenders, have been detained or forcibly returned to China where many have faced imprisonment and torture in custody.

Since 2016, the Chinese government has intensified repression and carried out a policy of mass, arbitrary detention of Uyghurs and other Turkic peoples, subjecting them to severe policies including the prohibition of most religious, linguistic, and cultural practices; state-sponsored forced labour; imprisonment; and forced sterilization and birth prevention policies.

Uyghurs are targeted on the basis of ethnic origin and religious affiliation, but detention and imprisonment have also been based, in many cases, on connections outside China. Uyghurs who have worked or studied abroad—and even those who have communicated with family or friends abroad—have been targeted for detention and imprisonment. It is well-established that all Uyghurs and Turkic peoples forcibly returned to China would be at serious risk of persecution.

The principle of non-refoulement, binding to all states regardless of ratification of the Refugee Convention, firmly establishes that no one should be returned to a country where there is a real risk of persecution, torture, inhuman or degrading treatment or any other human rights violation.

On World Refugee Day, we recall that the 1951 Refugee Convention, signed by 149 States to date, was drafted in response to the forced displacement and deportations that took place during the Second World War. The international community must live up to these principles and make good on its duty to protect Uyghurs at risk of facing mass atrocities in their homeland. No return is safe for Uyghurs. Immediate steps are urgently needed to ensure their protection.


  1. Alberta Uyghur Association
  2. AMERA International
  3. Asia Pacific Refugee Rights Network (APRRN)
  4. ASEAN Parliamentarians for Human Rights (APHR)
  5. Asylum Seeker Resource Centre
  6. Australian East Turkestan Association
  7. Australian Uyghur Association
  8. Australian Uyghur Tangritagh Women’s Association
  9. Austria Uyghur Association
  10. Belgium Uyghur Association
  11. Boat People SOS
  12. Campaign for Uyghurs
  13. The Center for Uyghur Studies
  14. The Center for Victims of Torture
  15. Church World Service (CWS)
  16. Committee for Religious Freedom in Vietnam
  17. Dutch Uyghur Human Rights Foundation
  18. East Turkistan Education and Solidarity Association
  19. East Turkestan Union of Muslim Scholars
  20. East Turkistan Nuzugum Culture and Family Association
  21. European East Turkistan Education Association
  22. European Uyghur Institute
  23. East Turkistan Association of Canada
  24. East Turkistan Union in Europe
  25. Eastern Turkistan Foundation
  26. Fair Trials
  27. Finnish Uyghur Culture Center
  28. Global Center for the Responsibility to Protect
  29. Global Legal Action Network (GLAN)
  30. HIAS
  31. ILPA (Immigration Law Practitioners’ Association)
  32. International Detention Coalition
  33. International Pen Uyghur Center
  34. ​​International Refugee Assistance Project (IRAP)
  35. Isa Yusup Alptekin Foundation
  36. Japan Uyghur Association
  37. Jubilee Campaign USA
  38. Lawyers for Uyghur Rights
  39. MENA Rights Group
  40. Montreal Institute for Genocide and Human Rights Studies (MIGS)
  41. Norwegian Uyghur Committee
  42. Refugee Congress
  43. Refugees International
  44. RefugePoint
  45. René Cassin
  46. Safeguard Defenders
  47. Satuq Bugrakhan Foundation of Science and Civilization
  48. Society Union of Uyghur National Association
  49. Stop Uyghur Genocide
  50. Sweden Uyghur Union
  51. Swiss Uyghur Association
  52. Uighur Society of the Kyrgyz Republic
  53. Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation
  54. Uyghur American Association
  55. Uyghur Academy Australia
  56. Uyghur Academy Canada
  57. Uyghur Academy Europe
  58. Uyghur Academy Foundation
  59. Uyghur Academy Japan
  60. Uyghur Academy USA
  61. Uyghur Center for Human Rights and Democracy
  62. Uyghur Cultural and Education Union in Germany
  63. Uyghur Human Rights Project
  64. Uyghur Projects Foundation
  65. Uyghur Refugee Relief Fund
  66. Uyghur Research Institute
  67. Uyghur Rights Advocacy Project
  68. Uyghur U.K. Association
  69. Uyghur Youth Union in Kazakhstan
  70. Victoria Uyghur Association
  71. World Uyghur Congress
  72. World Uyghur Congress Foundation
  73. World Without Genocide

Further sources on transnational repression:

Beyond Silence: Collaboration Between Arab States and China in the Transnational Repression of Uyghurs, Uyghur Human Rights Project (2022)

“Your Family Will Suffer”: How China is Hacking, Surveilling, and Intimidating Uyghurs in Liberal Democracies, Uyghur Human Rights Project and Oxus Society for Central Asian Affairs (2022)

Involuntary Returns – report exposes long-arm policing overseas, Safeguard Defenders (2022)

Returned Without Rights, State of Extraditions to China, Safeguard Defenders (2022)

Hide and seek: China’s extradition problem. A manual to counter extradition to China, Safeguard Defenders (2022)

Refugee Espionage: An EU Model, Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation,  (February 28, 2022)

Saudi Arabia: UN experts say Uyghurs must not be extradited to China, urge proper risk assessment, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (April 1, 2022)

China’s long arm: how Uyghurs are being silenced in Europe, Index On Censorship (2022)

Compromised Space: Foreign State Reprisals against Unrepresented Diplomats in Europe, Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation (April 2021)

Morocco: UN experts say extradition of Uyghur asylum seeker to China violates principle of non-refoulement, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (December 16, 2021)

“They Sent Her to a Concentration Camp Because She Came to Turkey”: The Persecution of Uyghurs Based on their Turkic and Muslim Identity, Uyghur Human Rights Project (2021)

“Nets Cast from the Earth to the Sky”: China’s Hunt for Pakistan’s Uyghurs, Uyghur Human Rights Project and Oxus Society for Central Asian Affairs (2021)

No Space Left to Run: China’s Transnational Repression of Uyghurs, Uyghur Human Rights Project and Oxus Society for Central Asian Affairs (2021)

The Nightmare of Uyghur Families Separated by Repression, Amnesty International (2021)

“Break Their Lineage, Break Their Roots”:  China’s Crimes against Humanity Targeting Uyghurs and Other Turkic Muslims, Human Rights Watch (2021)

Chinese authorities accused of intimidating Uyghurs in Australia, ABC News, March 30, 2019

Compromised Space: Bullying and Blocking at the UN Human Rights Mechanisms, Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation (July 2019)